Our Next Wetland Delineation Workshop

Field Workshop
September 24-27, 2018
Pittsburgh, PA

$1,299.00Purchase Student Ticket

More details →

Education for the Environment

Weather Notice

The Swamp School headquarters is located in Raleigh, NC. We are currently under a hurricane watch due to Florence. Our websites are all cloud based, backed up and weather proof. However, our offices are not. We are experiencing widespread power outages and our staff may not be able to respond to you in our normal timely fashion.

Swamp Classes Link

4 Ways to Learn Wetland Delineation

Here is what is coming up next!

Loading Events

Upcoming Events

Events Search and Views Navigation

Find Events

Event Views Navigation

Events Search

List of Events

Classroom and Field Wetland Delineation Training | Pennsylvania 2018

September 24 @ 8:00 am - September 27 @ 5:00 pm EDT

Online Wetland Delineation Training 2018

October 1
|Recurring Event (See all)

One event on February 5, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on March 5, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on April 2, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on May 7, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on June 4, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on July 2, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on August 6, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on September 10, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on October 1, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on November 5, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on December 3, 2018 at 12:00am

Certified Hydric Soils Investigator 2018

October 8
|Recurring Event (See all)

One event on April 2, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on July 9, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on October 8, 2018 at 12:00am

Developing Wetland Water Budgets 2018

October 8
|Recurring Event (See all)

One event on March 19, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on May 21, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on August 20, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on October 8, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on December 3, 2018 at 12:00am

Habitat Conservation Plans 2018

October 22
|Recurring Event (See all)

One event on June 18, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on October 22, 2018 at 12:00am

Online Wetland Delineation Training 2018

November 5
|Recurring Event (See all)

One event on February 5, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on March 5, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on April 2, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on May 7, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on June 4, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on July 2, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on August 6, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on September 10, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on October 1, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on November 5, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on December 3, 2018 at 12:00am

Certified Wetland Hydrologist

November 5
|Recurring Event (See all)

One event on June 4, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on September 10, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on November 5, 2018 at 12:00am

Classroom and Field Wetland Delineation Training | Texas 2018

November 5 @ 8:00 am - November 9 @ 5:00 pm EST
|Recurring Event (See all)

One event on November 5, 2018 at 8:00am

Principles of Wetland Design 2018

November 12
|Recurring Event (See all)

One event on July 9, 2018 at 12:00am

One event on November 12, 2018 at 12:00am

+ Export Events

Do you have a group to train?  Contact us HERE about our customized private training.

The Swamp School is Hiring!  Learn More ==> HERE

Certified Wetland Hydrologist

Next Online Workshop
Starts September 10, 2018

Find Out More Here

Program Categories

Check out all of our program listings, wetland tools and cool Swamp School merchandise.

On Sale!

It's on sale! Save a few bucks!

Best Sellers

Latest Newsletters

Posted on

Climate Migration – The New Migration

Swamp Stomp

Volume 18 Issue 38

Research has shown that most people migrate for economic reasons. The search for jobs and a better way of life are what brought millions of people to the shores of the United States and we continue to admit over a million legal immigrants every year. Cultural and environmental factors also induce migration. Cultural factors can be especially compelling, forcing people to emigrate from a country. Forced international migration has historically occurred for two main cultural reasons: slavery and political instability. Today though, the reason an ever-increasing number of people are migrating is that of environmental factors – climate migration.

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) proposes the following definition for environmental migrants:

“Environmental migrants are persons or groups of persons who, for compelling reasons of sudden or progressive changes in the environment that adversely affect their lives or living conditions, are obliged to leave their habitual homes, or choose to do so, either temporarily or permanently, and who move either within their country or abroad.”

Climate change will transform more than 143 million people into “climate migrants” escaping crop failure, water scarcity, and sea-level rise, a new World Bank report concludes. Most of the changes in populations will occur in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, but it is also occurring in our own country.

Whatever the cause of climate change, be it human meddling or the natural course of events, climate change is happening, and at an accelerated rate. One factor seems to be increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. Average global temperatures have increased, sea levels around the world have increased and the amount of ice contained in the great ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica have decreased. The loss of Arctic sea ice is one of the clearest signs of climate change. The past four winters have been the lowest four maximum sea ice extents since 1979. At the same time, the region’s climate has seen temperatures increase at more than twice the rate of the rest of the world, with record-shattering seasons becoming more common.

In our own country, significant numbers of people are relocating. The increasingly hot temperatures and dwindling fresh water supplies of the southwest, the sinking coastline of the Gulf states, and the increasing number of devastating hurricanes that have plagued the south have motivated many to move to more northern locales like Seattle, Washington, and Madison, Wisconsin. People are more concerned than ever about the future of adequate water supplies, moderate weather, and comfortable temperatures to raise their families.

The decision to move to safer climates is obviously deeply personal, influenced by a person’s connection with the community they live in, their financial situation and their tolerance for risk. In the U.S., a recent study by Mathew Hauer, a demographer at the University of Georgia, estimates that 13 million people will be displaced by sea level rise alone by the year 2100. Extreme weather due to climate change displaced more than a million people from their homes last year and could reshape our nation.

Climate change is going to remap our world, changing not just how we live but where we live. As scientist Peter Gleick, co-founder of the Pacific Institute, puts it, “There is a shocking, unreported, fundamental change coming to the habitability of many parts of the planet, including the U.S.A.”

At a certain point, you have to ask: how long can New Orleans, a city already below sea level, keep pumping water out? In Miami and other cities vulnerable to sea level rise, there is much talk among architects and urban planners about sea walls and coastal barriers and floating houses. But in practice, it’s much more complex.

There are plenty of unknowns in how this will all play out, including unforeseen climate tipping points, technological innovations that help us adapt, and outbreaks of war and but at what point will we pass the tipping point and have to evacuate coastal cities and desert our “new” deserts.

https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/welcome-to-the-age-of-climate-migration-202221/ Welcome to the Age of Climate Migration – Rolling Stone, Jeff Goodell, February 25, 2018

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/03/climate-migrants-report-world-bank-spd/, 143 Million People May Soon Become Climate Migrants

http://www.phschool.com/atschool/ap_misc/rubenstein_cultland/pdfs/Ch3_Issue1.pdf

Posted on

Redefining Extinction

Swamp Stomp

Volume 18 Issue 37

Twenty-four thousand years ago, give or take, the species known as the cave bear, was eliminated from the Earth. Scientists have not been able to pinpoint the exact cause of the extinction of the cave bear, but they have chalked it up to possible over-hunting and competition with humans for resources. Cave bears, however, may not be as extinct as we once thought they were.

Brown bears can be found throughout the forests and tundra of North America and Eurasia. There are more than 200,000 brown bears worldwide, and researchers have found that 0.9-2.4% of living brown bears’ DNA can be traced back to cave bears. This may not appear to be such an overwhelming discovery, but it is actually only the second time a present-day species’ DNA has been found to be traceable back to a species that was alive during the ice age. Humans are the only other species with this characteristic with 1.5-4% of our DNA being traceable back to Neanderthals. Just like humans, brown bears contain this ancient DNA via interbreeding between the old and the new species.

Axel Barlow, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Potsdam and one of the study’s lead authors, studied the genomes of polar bears, brown bears, and cave bears and compared them to each other. They found the genomes of brown bears and cave bears to be much more similar than the genomes of brown bears and polar bears. This confirmed that interbreeding had to occur to account for these similarities. Rasmus Nielsen, a geneticist at the University of California, Berkeley, notes, “The old-fashioned idea of a species [is that] it’s reproductively isolated from other species. This paper is a part of a series of papers that have been saying that worldview really is wrong.”

What is the significance? By discovering that Neanderthal DNA exists inside humans of today, scientists have been able to uncover aspects of humans from immunity to hair structure. So, this new knowledge could teach us something about unknown aspects of brown bears, who serve as important predators, as well as seed dispersers, in their ecosystems. However, Barlow adds, “It forces us to think on a philosophical level what we mean by species extinction.” In other words, when we say a species is extinct, we imagine it erased completely from the present, but we are finding out this is untrue. The cave bear may no longer physically roam the planet, but it lives on in the DNA of brown bears. Perhaps there will be other species found not to be as extinct as we had once thought?

Sources:

“Brown Bear.” WWF. WWF. N.d. Web. September 2, 2018.

Greshko, Michael. “Extinct Cave Bear DNA Found in Living Bears.” National Geographic. National Geographic. August 27, 2018. Web. September 2, 2018.

Posted on

Elephants: the Key to a Cure for Cancer?

Swamp Stomp

Volume 18 Issue 36

Cancer, a disease known only too well by so many of us. It’s a disease that comes in many shapes, sizes, and forms. What is cancer though, besides being a popular antagonist in young adult TV shows and books, and what makes this disease so deadly?

Humans and all other living organisms are made up of cells, trillions of them. Our cells divide and redivide, again and again, in order to create new tissue and replace older worn-out cells. It is an automatic process that we have little control over. DNA, located in the nucleus of every cell, controls when a cell divides and makes copies of itself in the process. Sometimes though, the DNA is copied incorrectly resulting in various defects. These defects, or mutations, can be good things; they can result in genetic variation that allows a species to evolve over time. Many times, these defects result in diseases, and one such disease is cancer. Cancer is the rapid uncontrolled growth of cells. This cell division can create tumors, and these tumors can be deadly to the organism. Cancer is not only a serious disease in humans but in of many other species of animals as well.

Knowing what we know about cancer, it might be reasonable to assume that the larger the animal is and the more cells there are, the more likely an animal is to get cancer, right? Wrong. Elephants, which are particularly large animals, actually break this trend, due to their unique DNA. Within human DNA, there is a certain gene that acts as a tumor suppressor, known as P53. Humans have one copy of this gene, while elephants have 20 copies. P53 works by ordering cells that are at risk for cancer to be destroyed. With 20 copies of this gene, elephants are at a significantly lower risk of cancer than humans. Scientists studying this gene in elephants found that P53 works with another gene, Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF6), which is actually responsible for destroying the at-risk cancer cells. When a cancerous cell begins to develop, P53 activates LIF6.

What does this mean for humans? Although cancer is a widely studied and well-known disease, scientists still have a lot of questions to answer before they can come up with a cure. By studying how other animals defend themselves, scientists hope to be able to develop a way to mimic these defenses in humans. We may find in the future that elephants end up being the gateway to a cure for cancer.

Source:

Wei-Haas, Maya. “Cancer Rarely Strikes Elephants. New Clues Suggest Why.” National Geographic. National Geographic. August 14, 2018. Web. August 26, 2018.